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Chronic Kidney Disease & Diabetes

Chronic complications of Diabetes Mellitus are divided into vascular and nonvascular. The vascular is further divided into microvascular and macrovascular. Diabetes Mellitus nonvascular complications are broad and examples in this category are gastroparesis, diarrhea, sexual dysfunction, dermatological, infectious and cataracts. There are four possible molecular mechanism of how hyperglycemia cause such complications. These include increased advanced glycation end products, increased conversion to sorbitol (alter redox potentioal and generates reactive oxygen species), increased in diacylglycerol (which cause protein kinase C activation), and increased in fructose 6 phosphate). Microalbuminuria slowly develops from a reversible etiology of incipient nephropathy to nonreversible gross proteinuria causing overt nephropathy. This is more pronounced in Diabetes Mellitus 2 patients since during the first decades not much symptoms are present.